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What Is Reinforced Concrete?
Reinforced Concrete is a substance similar to a stone that is obtained as a result of combining cement, sand and other aggregates along with water. Once they are combined, they are left to turn hard and this can take up any shape or structure depending on the structure of the building. One of the latest technologies in civil engineering design services is the use of reinforced concrete.
Even though the concrete material is strong in terms of compression it is weak in tension. If the tensile strength is weak, the bottom surface of the concrete will fail. To compromise, steel is usually used in concrete to strengthen and improve the tensile strength of concrete material. While doing this process, it is important for the steel material to have necessary deformations that are required to support the strong bonding of the materials and locking between two structures. When steel is surrounded by concrete mass, it becomes an important part of two materials thus forming Reinforced Concrete.
What Are The Advantages Of Reinforced Concrete?
Now that we have understood what reinforced concrete is, let’s take a look at some of the advantages of using reinforced concrete. Reinforced concrete is stronger than most of the other materials used in the construction industry. Apart from providing great strength it also has good tension capabilities. The materials have a longer lifespan and the maintenance cost is also lesser. For constructing larger structures such as dams reinforced concrete is very economical and can save lots of money for the builder. They can take any shape and are used in making structural components before casting. It is also very simple to make and does not require skilled labor. This material is also fire resistant and it yields about more than 15 times its compressive strength and 100 times more tensile strength.
What Are The Design Concepts Of Used In Reinforced Concrete?
While designing a structure, choosing the right materials and the proportions in which these materials are used plays an important role. This has to be decided based on structure, engineering, and design. If a structure has to be good, there are certain conditions such as functionality, economy, serviceability, and safety that have to be fulfilled.
Strength Design Method
In this method, the strength of the material is taken into account considering a failure condition. The failure could be either due to the concrete or due to the reinforced steel bars. As we know, additional strength can be acquired by using reinforced concrete, this additional strength is not taken into account during the analysis or the design stages. In the strength design method, actual loads are multiplied by a certain constant like load factor so that the design is created considering more loads. This is usually much higher than the actual load that the building will handle.
Working Stress Design
This method works based on elastic theory wherein the design is based on the stress distribution. The actual load that will be handled is calculated based on certain allowable stress factors in concrete and steel. This calculation is done by considering the fraction of the crushing strength of concrete and yield strength. Because this method is more effective and practical the new method has replaced the old method of calculating stress design.
Limit State Design
This is more advanced than the strength design method. In this method three limitations of the concrete are considered:
- The ability to carry loads
- Any deformations
- The appearance of any cracks
By analyzing the ability to carry load we understand the safety and durability factors, deformation helps us in understanding how the concrete handles deflection, vibrations and the impact of these deformations. By understanding how cracks are formed, we can analyze the strength of the concrete material. This helps in ensuring that the concrete is not limited by any of the factors and has a long-standing ability.
Reinforced Concrete History
A French Industrialist by the name of François Coignet was an expert in the development of reinforced concrete. During the nineteenth century, he was the first person to use iron-reinforced concrete for constructing the structure of a building. In the year 1853, he built a four-story house in Paris. That was the first iron reinforced structure to be constructed.