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Roads have been around since the invention of the wheel and even before. Construction of Roads can be seen even in ancient civilizations. It was this paved pathway that created a link between civilizations, enabling the sharing of knowledge in the form of information, goods, and mutual understandings.
Roads carry the symbolism of journey and adventure, from the humble footpath to the modern 16-lane roads. The modern road is constructed in several stages, depending on the place and type of road that is required. They are more permanent than early dirt roads or trails and civil construction Companies fabricate them to be able to bear a high volume of traffic each day, regardless of its actual use.
HOW THE ROAD FINDS ITS WAY? – Construction of Roads
The first step to constructing the modern road is to create a roadbed. Depending on the topography of the land, this may be as simple as digging into the soil in order to create a level path to lay the road on, or it may involve blasting rock in order to find level ground. Once the shallow hole is made, it is firmly packed with soil, creating a smooth base.
This is one of the most important aspects of laying a road as if it is not packed down well enough, it can lead to potholes and sinking later on in the construction. If the soil used to pack the foundation is found in situ, it must be taken to the lab to test for moisture content and composition before it can be used, failing to do so may lead to the concrete and tar not sticking to it or a pebbling effect.
Next, the gravel is laid on top of the sand foundation. Each layer of the road must be steamrolled to check for significant shifts in the stratum. Finer gravel is laid with having this and even finer gravel on top of that. They must be free of organic matter like clay. So that their compression during decay does not affect the quality of the road. The gravel is sealed with tar bitumen in most countries, though some have also used other geosynthetics to fill them. However, as stated earlier, depending on the type of road and its location, this top sealant can vary or not be present at all.
For example, for all-weather roads, the top coating of tar may be missing. These roads are designed to weather extreme conditions such as landslides and sub-zero temperatures. These roadways should withstand traffic and fight the elements. Hence they are left to adapt to a suitable shape by themselves.
This will more probably be sounder than forced and rigid road structure as is the case of city roads. In order to save on construction costs, some roads are laid with a mixture of clay silt and fine sand, which was previously known as a dirt path or dirt road, that forms a firm road though it is not as sturdy as a tar road. This is mainly used in agricultural and rural areas.
Nowadays, roads are not just made of tar and concrete. It has become a dumping ground for plasticine materials that cannot be reused. Hot tar is mixed with plastic waste and is used as a top layer in construction. This not only reduces the amount of tar needed to construct the road but also takes care of the plastic waste problem. Other eco-friendly fillings that are seeing more and more users are fabric scraps, asbestos shavings and various mixes of asphalt.
With a greater number of motorists on the road every day, it is important to ensure the integrity and design of the road is not compromised, especially in congested cities like those in India.
For Civil Construction Companies in Chennai, it is not only a matter of laying the road that is important. They need to decide on the placement of speed bumps, roundabouts, on-road shoulders where drivers can stop if needed. They should also consider cambering the road so that during the monsoon, the roads drain efficiently. Civil engineers must consider visibility issues like blind spots in the curve of a street. They should also decide the placement of traffic lights and road signs with caution. Thay should consider both motorists and pedestrians can safely traverse the road.